Patients with Myeloma may have no symptoms at all. Some patients may have the following symptoms

  • Pain in the bone, especially the hips, skull, or back.
  • Weakness in the bone
  • Broken bones (fractures)

Usually, Myeloma causes a shortage of red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets. This may lead to the following conditions

  • Anemia: A disease arising out of a reduced number of red blood cells. It can cause weakness, shortness of breath, and dizziness.
  • Leukopenia: A condition arising out of a reduced number of white blood cells that can lower resistance to infections.

Thrombocytopenia: A condition arising out of low blood platelet count, which may cause severe bleeding

High levels of calcium in the blood lead to hypercalcemia. This may cause:

  • Extreme thirst
  • Increase in Urinating
  • Dehydration
  • Kidney problems
  • Severe constipation
  • Abdominal pain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness
  • Feeling drowsy
  • Confusion

If spinal bones become weak due to Myeloma, the condition is known as spinal cord compression and may cause the following symptoms to weaken the bones in the spine, 

  • Sudden severe back pain
  • Numbness in the legs
  • Muscle weakness in the legs.

Spinal cord compression is an emergency, and the patient needs to be immediately shifted to the emergency room to avoid permanent paralysis.

Damage to nerves

Myeloma may also cause weakness and numbness in the nerves and cause the pins and needles sensation. This condition is called peripheral neuropathy.


Myeloma may sometimes cause a condition known as hyperviscosity, which is a condition in which the blood gets too thick, leading to less blood flowing into the brain. This may lead to the following symptoms

  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness on one side of the body
  • Slurred speech

If anybody gets these symptoms, they must consult their doctor immediately. Plasmapheresis is a procedure in which the protein from the blood is removed to reverse the problem.

Myeloma is known to damage the kidneys. You must remember that in the early stages, the patient has no symptoms, but if the patient is advised a blood test or urine test, the kidneys’ damage can be assessed. This can lead to symptoms such as:

  • Weakness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Itching
  • Leg swelling.


Patients with Myeloma are much more likely to get infections. Patients suffering from Myeloma must take care not to get infected as their body may be slow to respond to treatment. A severe disease that is seen in these patients is Pneumonia.

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